Research on the removal of calcareous and iron concretions from marine finds

Dublin Core

Title

Research on the removal of calcareous and iron concretions from marine finds

Description

In recent years, several shipwrecks have been found in the South China Sea, such as Huaguang Jiao I and South China Sea I, shipwrecks from the Southern Song Dynasty (12-13c AD) and Nan’ao I, a wreck from the Ming Dynasty (14-17c AD). Many ancient archaeological iron objects were found the site. Usually, calcareous and iron concretions exist on these iron objects and some iron objects are concreted together very tightly. This paper discusses methods to remove calcareous and iron concretions from archaeological iron objects found from the sea and separation methods for the concreted iron objects recovered from the Huaguang Jiao I and South China Sea I shipwrecks.

Creator

Zhang Zhiguo
Ma Qinglin
Li Naisheng
Tian Xingling
Liu Wei, in Van Tilburg, H., Tripati, S., Walker Vadillo, V., Fahy, B., and Kimura, J. (eds.)

Date

5/15/2014

Files

Citation


Fatal error: Uncaught ValueError: version_compare(): Argument #3 ($operator) must be a valid comparison operator in /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Xml/Security.php:172 Stack trace: #0 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Xml/Security.php(172): version_compare('8.0.30', '5.6', 'gte') #1 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Xml/Security.php(76): Zend_Xml_Security::isPhpFpm() #2 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Xml/Security.php(150): Zend_Xml_Security::scan('<?xml version="...', NULL) #3 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Locale/Data.php(160): Zend_Xml_Security::scanFile('/home/kknoerl/t...') #4 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Locale/Data.php(232): Zend_Locale_Data::_findRoute('en_US', '/ldml/dates/cal...', '', 'pattern', Array) #5 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Locale/Data.php(1137): Zend_Locale_Data::_getFile('en_US', '/ldml/dates/cal...', '', 'pattern') #6 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Date.php(843): Zend_Locale_Data::getContent('en_US', 'date', Array) #7 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Date.php(580): Zend_Date->_parseIsoToDate('FFFF', 'en_US') #8 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Date.php(466): Zend_Date->_toToken('FFFF', 'en_US') #9 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/globals.php(1006): Zend_Date->toString('FFFF') #10 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/models/Item.php(489): format_date(1716961385, 'FFFF') #11 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/models/Item.php(202): Item->getCitation() #12 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/views/helpers/Metadata.php(169): Item->getProperty('citation') #13 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/views/helpers/Metadata.php(144): Omeka_View_Helper_Metadata->_getRecordMetadata(Object(Item), 'citation') #14 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/views/helpers/Metadata.php(73): Omeka_View_Helper_Metadata->_getText(Object(Item), 'citation') #15 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/View/Abstract.php(349): Omeka_View_Helper_Metadata->metadata(Object(Item), 'citation', Array) #16 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/globals.php(2042): Zend_View_Abstract->__call('metadata', Array) #17 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/themes/berlin/items/show.php(33): metadata('item', 'citation', Array) #18 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Omeka/View.php(114): include('/home/kknoerl/t...') #19 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/View/Abstract.php(888): Omeka_View->_run('/home/kknoerl/t...') #20 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Controller/Action/Helper/ViewRenderer.php(912): Zend_View_Abstract->render(NULL) #21 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Controller/Action/Helper/ViewRenderer.php(933): Zend_Controller_Action_Helper_ViewRenderer->renderScript('items/show.php', NULL) #22 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Controller/Action/Helper/ViewRenderer.php(972): Zend_Controller_Action_Helper_ViewRenderer->render() #23 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Controller/Action/HelperBroker.php(277): Zend_Controller_Action_Helper_ViewRenderer->postDispatch() #24 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Controller/Action.php(527): Zend_Controller_Action_HelperBroker->notifyPostDispatch() #25 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Controller/Dispatcher/Standard.php(308): Zend_Controller_Action->dispatch('showAction') #26 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Controller/Front.php(954): Zend_Controller_Dispatcher_Standard->dispatch(Object(Zend_Controller_Request_Http), Object(Zend_Controller_Response_Http)) #27 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Application/Bootstrap/Bootstrap.php(105): Zend_Controller_Front->dispatch() #28 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Application.php(384): Zend_Application_Bootstrap_Bootstrap->run() #29 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Omeka/Application.php(73): Zend_Application->run() #30 /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/index.php(23): Omeka_Application->run() #31 {main} thrown in /home/kknoerl/themua.org/collections/application/libraries/Zend/Xml/Security.php on line 172